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Borders and Boundaries

From Indian treaties to the Cabbage Wars to World War II, the forces that shaped Rogers Park and West Ridge


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Rogers Park is an edgy place. Bordered by the lake and Evanston as well as its sister neighborhood, West Ridge, it has always been influenced and shaped by its juxtapositions between built environment and natural world, between city and suburb.

When Chicago was nothing but a few farmers and traders, plus the soldiers rebuilding Fort Dearborn, a boundary was drawn: in the 1816 Treaty of Saint Louis, the Ottawa, Ojibwa, and Potawatomi tribes ceded to the federal government a strip of land beginning at the mouth of the Chicago River that was 20 miles wide and 70 miles long—land through which the government intended to build the Illinois and Michigan Canal. (Sources disagree on the tribes involved, but ours checked the treaty.) The northern Indian Boundary Line ran west by southwest, from what is now Rogers Avenue and the lake through what is now Indian Boundary Park in West Ridge and eventually to the Des Plaines River. At the lake and along this edge dividing the Native American from the settler, the village of Rogers Park grew.

Like the city of Chicago itself, the area was settled thanks to a fortuitous combination of geography, railroads, and greed. Irish immigrant Philip Rogers arrived in Chicago in the early 1830s and later bought 1,600 acres of government land on either side of the area's one road, the prehistoric beach now called Ridge Boulevard. After Rogers's death, Patrick Touhy—an Irish immigrant and Civil War veteran who'd escaped from Andersonville (the Confederate prisoner of war camp in Georgia, not the Swedish neighborhood on the north side)—married Rogers's daughter Catherine and continued the lucrative real estate speculation that ran in her family, selling land mostly to German and Luxembourger immigrant families.

the lakefront in the 1920s

The Chicago and North Western Railroad's Milwaukee Line came through in 1873 and a commercial strip grew on Clark Street near the station at Ravenswood and Greenleaf. Several hundred people now lived in the area, many still farming but many others commuting to jobs in the city. The village of Rogers Park was incorporated in 1878.

The growth pattern is familiar: trains brought businessmen and their families far from the city's industrial smoke and immigrant crowds; the increasing density required infrastructure. By 1890, 3,500 people called Rogers Park home, and in 1893 Rogers Park and its neighbor West Ridge voted to avail themselves of Chicago's better services: sewers, water, telephones, street lighting and paving, police and fire protection, and other urban amenities. The few hundred residents of West Ridge, who had incorporated their village a mere three years earlier, received another benefit from annexation: there had been talk of expanding the dry laws of Evanston—from 1900 the home base of the Women's Christian Temperance Union—south into the villages across Howard Street; joining Chicago guaranteed that the beer would continue to flow. For decades a practically unbroken row of saloons faced Evanston from the south side of Howard.

Yet despite their common foe to the north, the two neighborhoods were not always neighborly. In 1896 they fought the so-called Cabbage Wars over competing proposals for the creation of tax-levying park districts—along the lake, which is what Rogers Park wanted, or inland, which is what West Ridge wanted. The more urbane Rogers Parkers dismissed their farming and saloon-keeping neighbors as "cabbage heads," and the West Ridgers retaliated by holding torchlight parades and waving cabbages on poles. West Ridge won the war—and that's why Indian Boundary Park and Pottawattomie Park are where they are and the Rogers Park lakefront is mostly park free.

The eastern part of the village of Rogers Park was a swampy birch forest, memorialized by Birchwood Avenue, one of the few east-west streets not named for a developer. And while the construction of Sheridan Road sparked some development, the area lay fallow till 1906, when the Jesuits founded Saint Ignatius parish and Loyola University. But in 1908, what is now the Red Line finally came north from Wilson to Evanston, with four stations in Rogers Park, and the next building boom was on. The strip of land north of Howard (and south of Calvary Cemetery) was annexed by the city in 1915, putting the final bit of the current edge in place.

Thanks to public transportation, in the first half of the 20th century Rogers Park developed faster than West Ridge. From 1910 to 1930 demand for housing drove the development of large apartment buildings, weaving a dense cityscape. Night-life districts, centered on el stations and theaters, flourished along Sheridan, Devon, Morse, Clark, and Howard. Cultural and social institutions grew up around Roman Catholic parishes, Protestant churches, and synagogues, and light industry scattered through the area provided work.

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